Typology

We differentiate three categories of Collective Actions according to the level of enforceability of participants' commitments:

Integrity Pacts

Integrity Pacts encompass the most binding level of Collective Action. As in declarations and standard setting coalitions, participants commit not to pay bribes or collude. In the case of Integrity Pacts, these commitments are often connected to a concrete public tender or bidding for a large project such as a sports event or a major construction project. One of the most defining features of Integrity Pacts is the presence of external third party monitoring. At its most enforceable, the Integrity Pact will include a certification process which may stipulate sanctions in case of violations of the terms of the agreements, including exclusion from the Collective Action initiative. Indeed, contracts are usually formulated in such a way to enable participants to seek action against each other in situations of non-compliance.

Standard Setting Initiatives

Standard setting initiatives increase the commitment of participants beyond that envisaged in Declarations and Joint Activities. Standard setting initiatives often take the form of codes of conduct, for example in a particular industry. Market players are involved in the design of the standards on anti-corruption, and then voluntarily submit to these standards. Adherence to these standards is a condition of continued membership of the initiative. Failure to comply with the code of conduct could result in a participant being expelled from the initiative. Standard-setting initiatives are efforts at harmonizing compliance and thus levelling the commercial playing field in a particular location or business sector. As illustrated, such initiatives lead to the creation of a more or less institutionalised form of policy dialogue. Regular forums for sharing experience in implementing the common standard contribute to the creation of communities of practice and enhanced capacity and knowledge across all participants, including competitors in the same industry.

Declarations and Joint Activities

A declaration is a statement by a group of companies, or by companies and government, committing the parties not to engage in corruption, and to respond to corruption should it be detected. Declarations are the simplest form of Collective Action in terms of enforceability because they do not involve an external monitoring component. This is a voluntary agreement and adherence is based on the participants' "word of honour". The level of self-enforcement will depend entirely on the participating companies' own level of commitment which may in turn be dependent on peer or public pressure. In addition, declarations are often accompanied by various types of joint activities, for example to raise awareness about ethics principles, or to engage other partners in training activities on business ethics. These joint activities are often an important means of increasing trust among partners to a declaration.